In a nutshell, the brain is an intricate network of neurons or nerve cells that process and transmit information. Drugs (and alcohol) disrupt this process. Substance use has a wide spectrum of effects — from altering feelings and perceptions to negatively impacting thought processes and behaviors. Understanding drug effects on the brain is crucial for comprehending addiction and promoting mental health. 

In this blog, we’ll explore how drugs can induce changes in neurotransmitters and affect cognitive functions and long-term brain functioning. We’ll also discuss the possibility of brain recovery after substance abuse.

neurological impact

Source: Oregon Trail Recovery

Basic Brain Function and Drug Interaction

Understanding how our brains function lays the foundation for grasping drugs’ neurological impact. Operating similarly to a complex computer, the brain is an intricate network of billions of neurons. 

Neurons communicate through neurotransmitters, firing signals across networks to manage functions and responses. The brain’s parts work together, with specific areas handling specific tasks. Neurons transmit messages by releasing neurotransmitters across synapses to receptor cells, influencing the receiving neuron’s behavior.

There are various drug effects on the brain. But primarily, drugs disrupt this communication by mimicking or altering neurotransmitter activity, leading to abnormal neuronal messages. Additionally, some drugs activate neurons falsely, while others cause excessive neurotransmitter release or block their recycling.

Short-Term Effects of Drug Use

When drugs enter your system, they disrupt the delicate balance in your brain. 

For instance, stimulants like cocaine increase the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter linked with reward and pleasure, by blocking its reuptake. This leads to heightened arousal and euphoria.

Conversely, depressants like alcohol enhance the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), resulting in sedation and impaired cognitive function. Opioids, such as heroin, bind to opioid receptors in the brain, mimicking endorphins and producing pain relief and euphoria.

Below are some of the short-term effects of drug use.

Altered Perception

Drugs like marijuana can quickly alter your perception of reality. You may experience heightened senses or a distorted sense of time. This can lead to both pleasurable and uncomfortable experiences.

Mood Changes

Substances such as alcohol and marijuana can induce immediate mood changes. You might feel an initial uplift in mood, increased relaxation, or even euphoria. However, these substances can also lead to mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, or aggression as the effects wear off.

Impaired Cognitive Functions

Stimulants, including amphetamines, can temporarily enhance alertness and energy. Yet, they can also impair cognitive functions, leading to difficulties in concentration, decision-making, and memory recall. This impact can affect everyday activities and responsibilities.

addiction and brain health


Long-Term Effects and Addiction

Repeated exposure to drugs’ short-term effects can lead to long-term consequences. You may experience neurological changes and even develop addiction. Addiction and brain health are closely intertwined, highlighting the critical need for awareness and early intervention to prevent lasting damage.

Neurological Changes

Prolonged drug use significantly alters the brain’s structure and function. These changes affect areas critical for judgment, decision-making, learning, memory, and behavior control. It can also increase your risk of developing mental health disorders.


Over time, your body becomes dependent on the drug to feel normal, leading to increased tolerance and withdrawal symptoms without the substance. This dependency cycle is a core component of addiction, making cessation challenging without professional help.

Reversing the Effects

While some effects of prolonged drug use can be severe, recovery and improvement are possible. However, it can take time. For example, long-term meth use can cause serious psychotic symptoms, such as paranoia, delusions, and hallucinations, lasting months or years after stopping.

The Brain’s Plasticity and Recovery

Despite the significant alterations caused by substance abuse, the brain retains its plasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s remarkable ability to reorganize and adapt by forming new neural connections.

This capability underpins the brain’s potential to recover from the drug effects on the brain, even after prolonged substance use. With cessation and appropriate treatment, the brain can begin to heal, gradually restoring impaired cognitive functions and emotional regulation.

This evidence of neuroplasticity’s role in recovery paves the way for studies that are focused on brain recovery post-addiction.

In New Zealand, a study is exploring brain recovery in former users. Although the dataset remains limited, early MRI scans reveal a reduction in the white haze associated with meth damage — signaling hope for neurological healing and the brain’s ability to bounce back with sustained abstinence.

cognitive functions

Source: Oregon Trail Recovery

Prevention and Education

Prevention and education play crucial roles in combating drug misuse and addiction. By knowing the effects drugs have on the brain and body, you can make informed decisions. Did you know that illegal drugs are not the only ones that can be addictive? Even prescription drugs can be dangerous too.

That’s why effective drug education programs are important as they teach coping strategies for stress and peer pressure. In the US, resources like the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) provide comprehensive information on drug effects, addiction science, and prevention strategies. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) offers tools for finding treatment and education materials.

Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has resources focused on opioid misuse and prevention. These organizations emphasize the significance of early education in promoting healthy choices and preventing drug-related harm.

Seeking Help for Addiction

Seeking help for drug addiction is a vital step toward brain recovery and overall well-being. Therapy and rehabilitation options are designed to address addiction’s physical dependence and its psychological aspects.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, for example, helps individuals develop coping strategies to deal with triggers and cravings. Meanwhile, support groups provide a sense of community and shared experience that can be incredibly supportive.

Rehabilitation programs offer a structured environment for detoxification and recovery, focusing on healing the brain and restoring cognitive functions impaired by substance use. These programs can be inpatient or outpatient, depending on the individual’s needs and the severity of the addiction. Medical professionals can also prescribe medications to help manage withdrawal symptoms, reduce cravings, and treat co-occurring mental health conditions.

brain recovery


In Conclusion

Drugs profoundly alter brain function, impacting neurotransmitters, mood, perception, and cognitive abilities, and can lead to addiction. Long-term effects include neurological changes and dependency, but the brain’s plasticity offers hope for recovery with the right treatment and cessation efforts. Education and prevention are critical in combating drug misuse and supporting individuals through their recovery journey. 

Oregon Trail Recovery recognizes the importance of understanding drug effects on the brain, advocating for awareness, and providing resources for those seeking help. Want to embrace the path to recovery and wellness? Reach out now and together, let us overcome addiction and foster brain health for a brighter future.